with alternating courses of masonry and wood. One of the most convincing arguments I've heard is that there was a well in Mecca called "Zamzam" which was a holy site before the Kaaba was built. Rock inscriptions from early Islam: Documentary evidence for the Kaaba. The structure beneath the shroud is quite plain. and later re-built by the Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail (peace be upon them) and i think it was rebuilt/repaired many times before and after that! Hawting, G.R.  It is disputed whether Allah and Hubal were the same deity or different. Saudi archeologist Mohammed Almaghthawi discovered some rock inscriptions mentioning the Masjid Al Haram and the Kaaba, dating back to the first and second centuries of Islam. Muhammad was driven out of Mecca in 620 C.E. Ibn Kathir regarded this tradition as weak and preferred instead the narration by Ali ibn Abi Talib that although several other temples might have preceded the Kaaba, it was the first Bayt Allah ("House of God"), dedicated solely to Him, built by His instruction, and sanctified and blessed by Him, as stated in Quran 22:26–29. There's a rather bizarre Islamic tradition that Alexander the Great visited the Arabian peninsula, and more specifically the Kaa'ba; i've only recently encountered this, and I was wondering if you could direct me towards how this tradition seems to have come about; the implication was that a) the kaa'ba existed in c.323 BC, b) that Alexander visited Arabia, c) that at the time it was the centre of a monotheistic religion. The town is absent, however, from any known geographies or histories written in the three centuries before the rise of Islam.  Alfred Guillaume, in his translation of the Ibn Ishaq's seerah, says that the Kaaba itself might be referred to in the feminine form. According to Islamic tradition, the Kaaba was built by Abraham (yes, the same Abraham from the Bible) as a holy site to God/Allah thousands of years before Muhammad was born. Tawaf begins from the corner of the Kaaba with the Black Stone. Various sculptures and paintings were held inside the Kaaba. This short Nestorian (Christian origin) chronicle written no later than the 660s CE covers the history up to the Arab conquest and also gives an interesting note on Arabian geography. The Bāb ut-Tawbah—on the right wall (right of the entrance) opens to an enclosed staircase that leads to a hatch, which itself opens to the roof. The Kaaba is the center of the holiest place of worship in Islam, the Sacred Mosque of Mecca, Al Masjid Al-Haram in Saudi Arabia.Its name means, “the cube” in Arabic, as it is a cube-shaped stone structure built in the middle of the Sacred Mosque. The building is opened biannually for the ceremony of "The Cleaning of the Sacred Kaaba" (Arabic: تنظيف الكعبة المشرفة, romanized: Tanzif al-Ka'bat al-Musharrafah, lit. The Kaaba is believed by Muslims to have been rebuilt several times throughout history, most famously by Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Ismail (Ishmael), when he returned to the valley of Mecca several years after leaving his wife Hajar (Hagar) and Ismail there upon Allah's command. Behold!  To be in a state of Wudu (ablution) is mandatory while performing tawaf as it is considered to be a form of worship ('ibadah). In 930 the Black Stone itself was carried away by an extreme Shiʿi sect known as the Qarmatians and held almost 20 years for ransom. Muslims initially considered Jerusalem as their qibla, or prayer direction, and faced toward it while offering prayers; however, pilgrimage to the Kaaba was considered a religious duty though its rites were not yet finalized.  He performed the Hajj in 632 CE called the Hujjat ul-Wada' ("Farewell Pilgrimage") since Muhammad prophesied his impending death on this event.. Then he saw the picture of Maryam, so he put his hands on it and he said: "Erase what is in it [the Kaaba] in the way of pictures except the picture of Maryam. The Kaaba is depicted on the reverse of 500 Saudi riyal, and the 2000 Iranian rial banknotes.. 'going about') is one of the Islamic rituals of pilgrimage and is compulsory during both the Hajj and Umrah. Aside from Islamic tradition, we do know that Mecca was a site of Arabian religion prior to the coming of Islam, and work has been done to reconstruct what Arab life would have been like in the region prior to Muhammad's revelation. That is interesting. After the centuries after Prophet Adam (PBUH) built the Kaaba, two people came across the desert to Makkah Valley with a child.  According to the Saudi Ministry of Hajj and Umrah, 6,791,100 pilgrims arrived for the Umrah pilgrimage in the Islamic year 1439 AH,[a] a 3.6% increase from the previous year, with 2,489,406 others arriving for the 1440 AH Hajj.  The circling is believed to demonstrate the unity of the believers in the worship of the One God, as they move in harmony together around the Kaaba, while supplicating to God.  According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "before the rise of Islam, it was revered as a sacred sanctuary and was a site of pilgrimage. After heavy rains and flooding in 1626, the walls of the Kaaba collapsed and the Mosque was damaged. I've mentioned this in a previous post, but the Ka'ba has actually been raided, damaged, repaired, and significantly rebuilt many times just over the 1400 years since Islam's establishment. , Writing in the Encyclopedia of Islam, Wensinck identifies Mecca with a place called Macoraba mentioned by Ptolemy.  It is considered by Muslims to be the Bayt Allah (Arabic: بَيْت ٱللَّٰه, lit. Kaaba a square stone building in the centre of the Great Mosque at Mecca, the site most holy to Muslims and towards which they must face when praying. The sacred nature of the site predates Islam: tradition says that the Kaaba was built by Adam and rebuilt by Abraham and the descendants of Noah. , Imoti contends that there were numerous such Kaaba sanctuaries in Arabia at one time, but this was the only one built of stone.  Edward Gibbon believed that this was the Kaaba. The Qibla is the direction faced during prayer. The Kaaba has been repaired and reconstructed many times. The Kaaba marked the location where the sacred world intersected with the profane; the embedded Black Stone was a further symbol of this as a meteorite that had fallen from the sky and linked heaven and earth. The Kaaba is a large cube-shaped building inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.Muslims believe that the Kaaba was built by the command of God.  The others also allegedly had counterparts of the Black Stone. Hans Wehr, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 1994. This seems improbable. This is the second dateable text mentioning the Kaaba, first being some verses from the Quran. To incorporate already established religious rituals and traditions into his "new" religion would have provided a comfortable transition for those committed to the old ways, while ensuring the local elites remained in an area shielded from warfare and where pilgrims would continue to come and spend money. Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for mankind. The detailed story of how the Kaaba was built by Abraham and his son Ishmael peace be upon them: The sections of this article are: 1- The detailed story of how the Kaaba was built by Abraham and his son Ishmael, peace be upon them. The wall directly adjacent to the entrance of the Kaaba has six tablets inlaid with inscriptions, and there are several more tablets along the other walls. A statue of Hubal (the principal idol of Mecca) and statues of other pagan deities are known to have been placed in or around the Kaaba. It was said that it was the angels, or Adam (peace be upon him), or Ibraaheem (peace be … The keys to the Kaaba are held by the Banī Shaybah (Arabic: بني شيبة) tribe, an honor bestowed upon them by Muhammad. The basic shape and structure of the Kaaba have not changed since then.. ", In her book Islam: A Short History, Karen Armstrong asserts that the Kaaba was officially dedicated to Hubal, a Nabatean deity, and contained 360 idols which probably represented the days of the year. A picture of 'Isa and his mother Maryam was situated inside the Kaaba and later found by Muhammad after his conquest of Mecca.  Members of the tribe greet visitors to the inside of the Kaaba on the occasion of the cleaning ceremony. Allah in his infinite Mercy ordained a similar place on earth and Prophet Adam was the first to build this place. to … Since he lived in tents, he built that place for the worship of God and for the offering of sacrifices. The same year, during the reign of Ottoman Emperor Murad IV, the Kaaba was rebuilt with granite stones from Mecca, and the Mosque was renovated. Undefined decorations, money and a pair of ram's horns were recorded to be inside the Kaaba,.  Circumambulation was often performed naked by men and almost naked by women. Taha Hussein said, “This is something really clear because the Kaaba was a new structure that was built before Islam existed. 'Honored Ka'bah'), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Islam prohibits the worship of the black stone, Kaaba, and/or any other object beside Allah Almighty! During the first half of Muhammad's time as a prophet while he was at Mecca, he and his followers were severely persecuted which eventually led to their migration to Medina in 622 CE. Circling the Kaaba seven times counterclockwise, known as Tawaf (Arabic: طواف, romanized: tawaaf), is an obligatory rite for the completion of the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. Sort by: Top Voted.  The Kaaba's appearance has not changed since then. 'Abdullah rebuilt it to include the hatīm.  Various sculptures and paintings were held inside the Kaaba. The Five Pillars of Islam. ; Kaʿba. The Kaaba and the Mataaf are surrounded by pilgrims every day of the Islamic year, except the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah, known as the Day of Arafah, on which the cloth covering the structure, known as the Kiswah (Arabic: كسوة, romanized: Kiswah, lit. The Kaaba with the signature minarets. A Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly: This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 22:29. Introduction to mosque architecture. One is that the shrine was a place of worship for angels (mala'ikah) before the creation of man. Kaaba in Mecca, demonstrating that Abraham could not have built it, even if the city of Mecca had existed before the 4th century AD. Introduction to mosque architecture. Email.  A hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari states that the Kaaba was the first masjid on Earth, and the second was the Temple in Jerusalem. The Ka’bah was not in one place and then moved, rather it was built in the place where it is now, and it has not been moved from that time.  The iconography portrayed a seated Maryam with her child on her lap. Islamic teachings say that Abraham built the Kaaba with his son. The Black Stone and the Maqam Ibrahim are believed by Muslims to be the only remnant of the original structure made by Abraham as the remaining structure had to be demolished and rebuilt several times over history for its maintenance. I realise it is likely that much of this is about as accurate as the Iliad and the Odyssey, but it's something I've never seen before and find really fascinating. Later, a house of worship was built on the location and was lost during the flood in Noah's time and was finally rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael as mentioned later in the Quran. Does the Kaaba actually have anything to do with Abraham or was that just another thing Muhammad made up? The Kaaba was bombarded with stones in the second siege of Mecca in 692, in which the Umayyad army was led by al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. 'House of God') and is the qibla (Arabic: قِبْلَة, direction of prayer) for Muslims around the world when performing salah. Learn kaaba with free interactive flashcards. [Quran 2:144] In 628 CE, Muhammad led a group of Muslims towards Mecca with the intention of performing the Umrah, but was prevented from doing so by the Quraysh. ['Ata'] said: "Yes, there was set in it a picture of Maryam adorned (muzawwaqan); in her lap, her son Isa sat adorned. 'The Sacred House of Allah'). 'Cleaning of the Sacred Cube'). , The Qur'an contains several verses regarding the origin of the Kaaba. Looks like you're using new Reddit on an old browser. Several idols were placed within the Kaaba representing deities of different aspects of nature and different tribes. I always wondered who really built the Kaaba and why that specific artifact is so sacred to Islam? The floor of the interior stands about 2.2 m (7 ft 3 in) above the ground area where tawaf is performed. Islam. As for specifics on the building itself, we don't have great or reliable details on the condition of the structure prior to the coming of Islam. According to Islamic tradition, the Kaaba was built by Abraham (yes, the same Abraham from the Bible) as a holy site to God/Allah thousands of years before Muhammad was born. Tradition goes that the Kaaba was ordained by Allah (swt) to be built in the shape of the House in Heaven called Baitul Ma’amoor.Allah in his infinite Mercy ordained a similar place on earth and Prophet Adam was the first to build this place. A door was raised above ground level to protect the shrine from intruders and flood waters. The Prophet started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, "Truth has come and Falsehood has vanished..." (Qur'an 17:81)", Al-Azraqi further conveys how Muhammad, after he entered the Kaaba on the day on the conquest, ordered all the pictures erased except that of Maryam, Shihab (said) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) entered the Kaaba on the day of the conquest, and in it was a picture of the angels (mala'ika), among others, and he saw a picture of Ibrahim and he said: "May Allah kill those representing him as a venerable old man casting arrows in divination (shaykhan yastaqsim bil-azlam)." The Portal for Public History Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an p. 76, Key to numbered parts translated from, accessed 2 December, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Al-Muwatta Of Iman Malik Ibn Ana, p. 186, Anas, 2013, Islamic New Year#Gregorian correspondence, "As Hajj begins, more changes and challenges in store", "The Holy Land, Jerusalem and Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Qur'an, Sunnah and other Islamic Literary Source", "IN PICTURES: Six doors of Ka'aba over 5,000 years", "Hijazi Rock Inscriptions, Love of the Prophet, and Very Early Islam: Essays from Informed Comment", "Muhammad's Birth and Forty Years prior to Prophethood", "On this day in 683 AD: The Kaaba, the holiest site in Islam, is burned to the ground", "Saudi Arabia's Top Artist Ahmad bin Ibrahim Passes Away", "الرسول شرّف بني شيبة بحمل مفتاح الكعبة حتى قيام الساعة", Ka'bah info: Everything you want to know about the Holy Ka'bah, ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kaaba&oldid=994059904, Religious buildings and structures converted into mosques, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with dead external links from November 2020, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Agency of the General Presidency for the Affairs of the Two Holy Mosques, The entrance is a door set 2.13 m (7 ft 0 in) above the ground on the north-eastern wall of the, This slant structure, covering three sides of the. Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasūl Allāh, one of the biographies of Muhammad (as reconstructed and translated by Guillaume), describes Muhammad settling a quarrel between the Meccan clans as to which clan should set the Black Stone in its place. It could have been dedicated to a … I'm going to leave the reason it is sacred to Islam to someone who knows more about the subject. The Kaaba is the holiest site in Islam, and is often called by names such as the Bayt Allah (Arabic: بيت الله, romanized: Bayt Allah, lit. A house for the people. Millions of Muslims travel to Mecca, Saudi Arabia every year and in a single day, Mecca is capable of attracting over two million Muslim followers for the annual hajj pilgrimage, considered one of the five pillars of Islam . However, the most significant increase in their numbers is during Ramadan and the hajj, when millions of pilgrims gather for tawaf. He is Independent and free of any kind of associate having no father, mother or son as is promulgated by the Roman Catholic Church and by … 'The Cube', Arabic pronunciation: [kaʕ.bah]), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Arabic: ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, romanized: al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah, lit.